Smart Manufacturing or, as the Germans tend to say, Industry 4.0, has already become a reality for virtually any business in manufacturing. However, as just recently demonstrated by the attack on Norsk Hydro, this evolution comes at a price: There are doors created and opened for attackers that are not easy to close again.
These new challenges are not a surprise when looking at what the quintessence of Smart Manufacturing is from a security perspective. Smart Manufacturing is about connecting business processes to manufacturing processes or, in other words, the (business) value chain to the physical processes (or process chains) on the factory floor.
The factory floor has seen some cyber-attacks even before Smart Manufacturing became popular. However, these were rare attacks, some of them being highly targeted on specific industries. Stuxnet, while having been created in the age of Smart Manufacturing, is a sample of such an attack targeted at non-connected environments, in that case, nuclear plants.
In contrast, cyber-attacks on business IT environments are common, with numerous established attack vectors, but also a high degree of “innovation” in the attacks. There are many attacks. Smart Manufacturing, by connecting these two environments, opens these new doors – at the network level as well as at the application layer. The quintessence of Smart Manufacturing, from the IT perspective, is thus “connecting everything = everything is under attack”. Smart Manufacturing extends the reach of cybercriminals.
But how to lock these doors again? It all starts with communication, and communication starts with a common language. The most important words here are not SCADA or ICS or the likes, but “safety” and “security”. Manufacturing is driven by safety. IT is driven by security. Both can align, but both also need to understand the differences and how one affects the other. Machines that are under attack due to security issues might cause safety issues. Besides that, there are other aspects such as availability and others that differ in their relevance and other characteristics between the OT (Operational Technology) and the IT world. If an HR system is down for a day, that is annoying, but most people will not notice. If a production line is down for a day, that might cause massive costs.
Thus, as always, it begins with people – knowing, understanding, and respecting each other – and processes. The latter includes risk management, incident handling, etc. But, also common, there is a need for technology (or tools). Basically, this involves a combination of two groups of tools: Specific solutions for OT networks such as unidirectional gateways for SCADA environments, and the well-thought-out use of standard security technologies. This includes Patch Management, which is more complex in OT environments due to the restrictions regarding availability and planned downtimes. This includes the use of Security Intelligence Platforms and Threat Intelligence to monitor and analyze what is happening in such environments and identify anomalies and potential attacks. It also includes various IAM (Identity & Access Management) capabilities. Enterprise Single Sign-On, while no longer being a hyped technology, might help in moving from open terminals to individual access, using fast user switching such as in healthcare environments. Privileged Access Management might help in restricting privileged user access to critical systems. Identity Provisioning can be used to manage users and their access to such environments.
There are many technologies from IT Security that can help in locking the doors in OT environments again. It is the about time for people from OT and IT to start working together, by communicating and learning from each other. Smart Manufacturing is here to stay – now it is time to do it right not only from a business but from a security perspective.
Figure: Connecting Everything = Everything is Under Attack