The high proportion of cyber attacks enabled by poor security practices has long raised questions about what it will take to bring about any significant change. Finally, however, there are indications that the threat of substantial fines for contravening the growing number of data protection regulations and negative media exposure associated with breaches are having the desired effect.
High profile data breaches driving industry improvements
The positive effect of high-profile breaches was evident at the Amazon Web Services (AWS) re:Invent conference in Las Vegas, where the cloud services firm made several security related announcements, that were undoubtedly expedited if not inspired by the March 2019 Capital One customer data breach, which was a text book example of a breach enabled by a cloud services customer not meeting their obligations under the shared responsibility model, which states organizations are responsible for anything they run in the cloud.
While AWS was not compromised and the breach was traced to a misconfiguration of a Web Application Firewall (WAF) and not the underlying cloud infrastructure, AWS has an interest in helping its customers to avoid breaches that inevitably lead to concerns about cloud security.
It is therefore unsurprising that AWS has introduced Access Analyzer, an Identity and Access Management (IAM) capability for Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) to make it easy for customer organizations to review access policies and audit them for unintended access. Users of these services are less likely to suffer data breaches that reflect badly on all companies involved and the cloud services industry is general. Something AWS is obviously keen to avoid.
Guarding against another Capital One type data breach
Access Analyzer complements preventative controls, such as Amazon S3 Block Public Access, which help protect against risks that stem from policy misconfiguration, widely viewed as the single biggest security risk in the context of cloud services. Access Analyser provides a single view across all access policies to determine whether any have been misconfigured to allow unintended public or cross-account access, which would have help prevent the Capital One breach.
Technically speaking, Access Analyzer uses a form of mathematical analysis called automated reasoning, which applies logic and mathematical inference to determine all possible access paths allowed by a resource policy to identify any violations of security and governance best practice, including unintended access.
Importantly, Access Analyzer continuously monitors policies for changes, meaning AWS customers no longer need to rely on intermittent manual checks to identify issues as policies are added or updated. It is also interesting to note, that Access Analyzer has been provided to S3 customers at no additional cost, unlike most of the other security innovations which represent new revenue streams for AWS.
On the security front, AWS also announced the Amazon Detective security service, currently available in preview, which is designed to make it easy for customers to conduct faster and more efficient investigations into security issues across their workloads.
In effect, Amazon Detective helps security teams conduct faster and more effective investigations by automatically analyzing and organizing data from AWS CloudTrail and Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) Flow Logs into a graph model that summarizes resource behaviors and interactions across a customer’s AWS environment.
Amazon Detective’s visualizations are designed to provide the details, context, and guidance to help analysts quickly determine the nature and extent of issues identified by AWS security services like Amazon GuardDuty, Amazon Inspector, Amazon Macie, and AWS Security Hub, to enable security teams to begin remediation quickly. Essentially an add-on to enable customers (and AWS) to get more value out of existing security services.
Hardware-based data isolation to address data protection regulatory compliance
Another capability due to be available in preview in early 2020 is AWS Nitro Enclaves, which is aimed at making it easy of AWS customers to process highly sensitive data by partitioning compute and memory resources within an instance to create an isolated compute environment.
This is an example of how data protection regulations are driving suppliers to support better practices by customer organizations by creating demand for such services. Although personal data can be protected using encryption, this does not address the risk of insider access to sensitive data as it is being processed by an application.
AWS Nitro Enclaves avoid the complexity and restrictions of either removing most of the functionality that an instance provides for general-purpose computing or creating a separate cluster of instances for processing sensitive data, protected by complicated permissions, highly restrictive networking, and other isolations. Instead, AWS customers can use AWS Nitro Enclave to create a completely isolated compute environment to process highly sensitive data.
Each enclave is an isolated virtual machine with its own kernel, memory, and processor that requires organizations only to select an instance type and decide how much CPU and memory they want to designate to the enclave. There is also no persistent storage, no ability to login to the enclave, and no networking connectivity beyond a secure local channel.
An early adopter of AWS Nitro Enclaves is European online fashion platform, Zalando, to make it easier for the Berlin-based firm to achieve application and data isolation to protect customer data in transit, at rest and while it is being processed.
AWS shoring up security in cloud services while adding revenue streams
The common theme across these security announcements is that they reduce the amount of custom engineering required to meet security and compliance needs, allow security teams to be more efficient and confident when responding to issues, and make it easier to manage access to AWS resources, which also harkens back to the Capital One breach.
In effect, AWS is continually making it easy for customers to meet their security obligations to protect the its own reputation as well as the reputation of the industry as a whole to the point that organizations will not only trust and have confidence in cloud environments, but will increasingly see improved security as being one of the main drivers for cloud migration.
AWS is also focusing on regulatory compliance as a driver rather than inhibitor of cloud migration. We will cover this in a blogpost tomorrow.
If you want more information about hybrid cloud security, check the Architecture Blueprint "Hybrid Cloud Security" and make sure you visit our 14th European Identity & Cloud Conference. Prime Discount expires by the end of the year, so get your ticket now.
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