Consumer Identity and Access Management (CIAM) is a parallel to traditional Identity and Access Management (IAM) that has become a substantial market of its own. CIAM solutions are designed to meet evolving technical requirements for businesses and other organizations that deal directly with consumers and citizens. Many businesses and public sector organizations are finding that they must provide better digital experiences for and gather more information about the consumers who are using their services. Enterprises want to collect, store, and analyze data on consumers in order to create additional sales opportunities and increase brand loyalty. Know Your Customer (KYC) initiatives, particularly in the financial sector, are another example of the business driver motivating exploration and adoption of CIAM.
CIAM has diverged from traditional IAM in supporting some baseline features for analyzing customer behavior, as well as collecting consent for user data usage, and integration into CRM, connected devices, and marketing automation systems.
CIAM at first glance seems very much like Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software. However, it differs from CRM in that, with CRM systems, sales and marketing professionals are counted upon to enter the data about the contacts, prospects, and track the sales cycle. The focus of CRM is managing all processes around the customer relationship, while CIAM focuses on the connectivity with the customer when accessing all customer-facing systems, from registration and throughout the relationship. With CIAM, similar kinds of information as in CRM systems can be collected, but the consumers themselves provide and maintain this information. In this sense, CIAM solutions are self-managed CRM systems for consumer-facing organizations, particularly in the retail, media, finance, and health care industries. CIAM solutions are also being used by governments for government-to-consumer (G2C) use cases.
Traditional IAM systems are designed to provision, authenticate, authorize, and store information about employee users. User accounts are defined; users are assigned to groups; users receive role or attribute information from an authoritative source. They are generally deployed in an inward-facing way to serve a single enterprise. Over the last decade, many enterprises have found it necessary to also store information about business partners, suppliers, and customers in their own enterprise IAM systems, as collaborative development and e-commerce needs have dictated. Many organizations have built extensive identity federations to allow users from other domains to get authenticated and authorized to external resources. Traditional IAM scales well in environments of hundreds of thousands of users.
Consumer IAM systems are designed to provision, authenticate, authorize, collect and store information about consumers from across many domains. Unlike regular IAM systems though, information about these consumers often arrives from many unauthoritative sources. Some solutions in this space provide connections to various identity proofing services to strengthen the veracity of the consumer attributes. CIAM systems generally feature weak password-based authentication, but also support social logins and other stronger authentication methods. Information collected about consumers can be used for many different purposes, such as authorization to resources, or for analysis to support marketing campaigns, or Anti-Money Laundering (AML) initiatives. Moreover, CIAM systems must be able to manage many millions of identities, and process potentially billions of logins and other transactions per day.
In order to reduce money laundering, cyber-crime, terrorist financing, and fraud, regulators are requiring banks and financial service providers to put into place mechanisms for “Knowing Your Customer”. Government regulators expect banks to utilize analytics to develop baseline patterns for all their customers, and to be able to spot deviations from individuals’ normal parameters. Suspicious transactions must be flagged for investigation, specifically to prevent the aforementioned criminal activities. CIAM solutions have become a standard architectural component to help with financial KYC.
Support for self-registration and social network logins is ubiquitous among vendors; and the key differentiators have become the use of new technologies to:
- comply with privacy regulations
- step up the user’s authentication assurance level
- collect and analyze information for fraud prevention
- collect and analyze information for marketing purposes
- connect consumer identities to IoT device identities, e.g. Smart Home devices and apps
The entire market segment is still evolving and growing. We expect to see more entrants within the next few years. This year we are reviewing a number of new product and service entries in this report.
IT departments should welcome CIAM initiatives, as they provide an opportunity for IT, usually considered a “cost center”, to closely team with Marketing, a revenue producing center.
This KuppingerCole Leadership Compass provides an overview of the leading vendors in the CIAM market segment. Picking solutions always requires a thorough analysis of customer requirements and a comparison with product features. Leadership does not always mean that a product is the best fit for a customer and his requirements. However, this Leadership Compass will help identify those vendors that customers should look at more closely.
1.1 Market Segment
The CIAM market is still growing, with many vendors offering mature solutions providing standard and deluxe features to support millions of users across every industrial sector. As will be reflected in this report, the solutions in this space are quite diverse. Some vendors have about every feature one could want in a CIAM product, while others are more specialized, and thus have different kinds of technical capabilities. For example, some smaller vendors are targeting the government-to-citizen (G2C) market as well as business-to-business-to-consumer (B2B2C). We often see support for national e-IDs, x.509 certificates, and higher assurance authentication mechanisms in these vendors’ products compared to the rest.
Furthermore, KuppingerCole research indicates that the particular market segments that vendors choose to target often has a direct effect on the type of features available in their CIAM solutions. CIAM vendors that are primarily pursuing retail and media companies as clients tend to not have the customer-driven pressure to support high assurance authentication and complex attribute-based access controls.
Additionally, CIAM solutions can be somewhat regionalized, in that, some vendor products/services are specialized in meeting the particular requirements and capabilities of a country or small group of countries. For example, there are a few vendors that rely upon the national IDs or bank IDs of the Nordic region of Europe, and provide interoperability with service providers in that area, and help customers adhere to GDPR. Likewise, we find vendors that have solutions tailored to Latin American countries or APAC countries, with regionalized language support and excellent interoperability with service providers in those areas. These features are competitive advantages for these vendors and may be especially attractive solutions to customers in these areas.
The number of vendors in the CIAM market has grown, in response to the increasing market size. Many of them are built from the ground up as purely consumer-oriented identity solutions. Other vendors have modified their traditional LDAP-based, Web Access Management (WAM) components to accommodate consumers. All the major players in the CIAM segment are covered within this KuppingerCole Leadership Compass, as well as the specialized regional players. This Leadership Compass will examine solutions that are available for both on-premise and cloud-based deployment.
Several noteworthy trends have appeared in the CIAM market, outlined below:
- Many vendors are taking an “API-first” approach to CIAM, which allows organizations with in-house expertise to extend their existing IAM infrastructure to accommodate consumer use cases better. The API-first approach also permits in-house developers to easily “bolt-on” CIAM features to existing or legacy Line of Business applications, without necessarily investing in a full-size CIAM solution. Identity API platforms are not always completely assembled products and services. Rather, these platforms are collections of tools, code, and templates. Identity API platforms may contain many open source elements, and generally leverage well-known standards. In some regards, these granular identity services allow customers to “build (or rent) their own IDaaS”. Deploying CIAM functionality using Identity APIs aligns with the notion of Identity Fabrics. KuppingerCole also has a Leadership Compass that focuses on Identity API platforms and an upcoming Leadership Compass on Identity Fabrics.
- Some startup CIAM vendors are now combining basic CIAM functionality with identity proofing to increase identity assurance and reduce the risk of fraud. Other larger or more established CIAM vendors are partnering with specialty identity proofing services for the same reason.
- Some of the larger vendors, particularly those with cloud-only delivery models, offer a wide range of services covering basic to advanced authentication methods, consent management, and integrated identity and marketing analytics/automation. They aim to provide their customers with most all the features needed not only for CIAM but also for CRM and managing marketing operations.